In prescribing sildenafil, a doctor considers the age, general health status, and other medication(s) the patient is taking. The usual starting dose for most men is 50 mg, however, the doctor may increase or decrease the dose depending on side effects and effectiveness. The maximum recommended dose is 100 mg every 24 hours. However, many men will need 100 mg of sildenafil for optimal effectiveness, and some doctors are recommending 100 mg as the starting dose.

Aging: There are two reasons why older men are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction than younger men. First, older men are more likely to develop diseases (such as heart attacks, angina, cardiovascular disease, strokes, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure) that are associated with erectile dysfunction. Second, the aging process alone can cause erectile dysfunction in some men by causing changes in the muscle and tissue within the penis.


Options: If you’re among the many millions of older Americans without known coronary disease who are taking these drugs, ask your doctor or other health care provider about treating your slightly elevated cholesterol with a combination of sublingual (under-the-tongue) vitamin B12 (1000mcg daily), folic acid (800mcg daily) and vitamin B6 (200mg daily).

All men at one time or another will experience ED. Only if the problem becomes persistent -- occurs more than half the time -- or becomes a source of distress for you or your partner should you be concerned and consider seeking medical advice and treatment. For men whose erectile dysfunction is caused by psychological problems, therapy may be needed.


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One study looked at men newly diagnosed with heart disease, but without ED, who started treatment with the beta blocker atenolol (Tenormin). Among those who were told about the drug's potential sexual side effects, almost a third reported ED. In contrast, of those who were not told the drug's name or its side effects, only 3% said they experienced ED.
If you drink a lot or take recreational drugs, this can also be a reason that you might experience erectile dysfunction. These effects can continue even when the effects of the substance feel like they’ve worn off, so make sure you take this into consideration if you’re experiencing ED. Speak with your GP or online doctor if you’re finding drinking or illegal drug use difficult to manage.
The impact of malignancy and its treatment on both the individual and his or her partner can have a significant negative influence on their sexual relationship. Many of the cancer treatments can lead to sexual dysfunction. As common examples, long-acting gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists used for prostate and breast cancer result in hypogonadism, with subsequent reduction in sexual desire, erectile dysfunction in men42, vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia in women as well as orgasmic dysfunction.34
Guilt is a painful and gut-wrenching emotion. It is identified in this article as one of the possible causes of psychological impotence. If your guilt is strong enough, it interrupts the signals between your brain and body, stopping you from getting an erection. It’s almost as if the unconscious mind punishes you by denying you pleasure in response to the guilt that you feel.
The main surgical treatment of ED involves insertion of a penile implant (also called penile prostheses). Because penile vascular surgery is not recommended for aging males who have failed oral PDE5 inhibitors, ICI or IU therapies, implants are the next step for these patients. Although placement of a penile implant is a surgery which carries risks, they have the highest rates of success and satisfaction among ED treatment options.
Other factors leading to erectile dysfunction are diabetes mellitus, which is a well-known cause of neuropathy).[1] ED is also related to generally poor physical health, poor dietary habits, obesity, and most specifically cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease.[1] Screening for cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and alcoholism is helpful.[1]
Whether patients report their sexual problems depends on several factors, including whether the patient is comfortable disclosing these problems, and whether the clinician is willing to ask about sexual issues and does so in a sensitive way.7,8 Patients on long-term medications may not be aware that their sexual problems have developed as a result of their treatment. Conversely some may blame their drugs for sexual problems which are due to relationship difficulties or other stressors. Some doctors consider that asking patients if they had noticed any sexual adverse effects from their drugs may 'suggest' them to the patient, and possibly result in non-adherence. Patients attributing their sexual problems to their drugs are less likely to continue the treatment even when necessary for their health.9 The consultation should include discussion of the patient's sexual issues so these can be considered in treatment decisions.
Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and health history. They may do tests to determine if your symptoms are caused by an underlying condition. You should expect a physical exam where your doctor will listen to your heart and lungs, check your blood pressure, and examine your testicles and penis. They may also recommend a rectal exam to check your prostate. Additionally, you may need blood or urine tests to rule out other conditions.
Once observed that the organic component of ED is the most important one in younger patients (Figure 2), the summarized evidence underlines that metabolic and CV risk must not be underestimated in younger men even when they are apparently healthy. In fact, it is particularly in these men that recognizing the presence of risk factors can help in changing life-style, thus really changing the natural history of metabolic and CV diseases. In older men the damage is often already established and the identification of further risk factors usually does not add information to the estimation of CV risk. ED is a symptom that can provide a chance for both the patients and physicians to unearth the presence of CV risk factors and improve both the quality and length of life of these men.
This form of therapy can be great at building a more communicative, honest relationship, as well as helping to reduce sexual anxiety. Many find the opportunity to have an open conversion on their sexual life to be invaluable, and the increased communication can strengthen their feeling of connection as a result. You may even gain new ideas on how to approach future sexual issues together.
Taking one of these tablets will not automatically produce an erection. Sexual stimulation is needed first to cause the release of nitric oxide from your penile nerves. These medications amplify that signal, allowing some men to function normally. Oral erectile dysfunction medications are not aphrodisiacs, will not cause excitement and are not needed in men who get normal erections.
Modern drug therapy for ED made a significant advance in 1983, when British physiologist Giles Brindley dropped his trousers and demonstrated to a shocked Urodynamics Society audience his papaverine-induced erection.[44] The drug Brindley injected into his penis was a non-specific vasodilator, an alpha-blocking agent, and the mechanism of action was clearly corporal smooth muscle relaxation. The effect that Brindley discovered established the fundamentals for the later development of specific, safe, and orally effective drug therapies.[45][better source needed][46][better source needed]

Serving clients in San Francisco, San Jose, Sunnyvale, Alameda, Albany, Atherton, Belmont, Berkeley, Burlingame, Campbell, Concord, Cotati, Cupertino, Daly City, Danville, Dublin, Palo Alto, Emeryville, Foster City, Fremont, Hayward, Hillsborough, Livermore, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Menlo Park, Mill Valley, Millbrae, Milpitas, Monte Sereno, Morgan Hill, Mountain View, Newark, Oakland, Pacifica, Palo Alto, Petaluma, Pleasanton, Portola Valley, Redwood City, Richmond, Rohnert Park, San Anselmo, San Bruno, San Carlos, San Leandro, San Mateo, San Rafael, Santa Clara, Santa Rosa, Sausalito, Sebastopol, Sonoma, South San Francisco, Tiburon, Union City, Vacaville, Vallejo, Walnut Creek, Woodside, throughout the United States, and internationally.


A physical exam checks your total health. Examination focusing on your genitals (penis and testicles) is often done to check for ED. Based on your age and risk factors, the exam may also focus on your heart and blood system: heart, peripheral pulses and blood pressure. Based on your age and family history your doctor may do a rectal exam to check the prostate. These tests are not painful. Most patients do not need a lot of testing before starting treatment.
An injury to the nerves, arteries, or veins of the pelvis has the potential to cause sexual problems. Men with spinal cord injuries have increased rates of erectile and ejaculatory problems, for example. However, spinal cord injury does not necessarily prohibit sexual function. Some people with complete spinal cord injuries still experience arousal and orgasm from non-genital stimulation. In addition, desire and interest are unlikely to be affected by spinal cord injury.
Do you have a couple of hours, or longer? The list of medications that cause erectile dysfunction (ED), or problems getting and maintaining an erection during sex, are long and varied. While there's no way to mention all the chemical culprits, let's start with a few of the common ones: Over-the-counter antihistamines for allergies and other conditions. Tranquilizers and antidepressants can also cause a bout of ED, which is why guys should take them only for a short time. Meds that treat high blood pressure and heart disease may help save your life but will compromise or kill your sex life. Radiation and chemotherapy medications for prostate, colon, and similar cancers also cause problems in the bedroom. And illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin, which might make their users feel good for a while, will only cause them to crash in the bedroom.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common and highly effective treatment for psychological issues in general, but also for ED. Facilitated by a therapist, this type of treatment helps you to identify and change unhealthy patterns of thought and action which may be contributing to your erectile issues. This kind of treatment is based on the idea that the situation itself (your inability to achieve or maintain an erection) is not the core problem, but rather your reaction to it. If you can learn to better understand yourself and your thought patterns, you can change them in a positive way to resolve your issues.
The ‘senate focus’ exercise is particularly popular, where both partners agree to abstain from sex for a few weeks but increase non-sexual bodily contact and understanding. You gradually begin to incorporate sexual elements into your touching until you are both ready for sex, increasing the other person’s understanding of how you like to be touched.
While erectile dysfunction can occur at any age, the risk of developing erectile dysfunction increases with age. According to the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 52% in men 40-70 years of age. The prevalence of complete erectile dysfunction increases from 5% at 40 years of age to 15% among men 70 years of age and older.
Accurate statistics are lacking on how many men are affected by the condition because it is often underreported, but it is estimated that about half of men over 40 in Canada have frequent problems achieving or maintaining an erection. The number of men suffering from erectile dysfunction increases with age, but it is not considered a normal part of aging. The majority of cases can be successfully treated.
Despite all the options and alternatives, sometimes there’s no suitable alternative to a prescription that contributes to ED. You might have an adverse reaction to an particular medication or an alternative is unavailable in your state, health insurance plan, or your budget. There are good reasons you were prescribed your original medication in the first place.
A study published in May 2014 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine found that some men can reverse erectile dysfunction with healthy lifestyle changes, such as exercise, weight loss, a varied diet, and good sleep. The Australian researchers also showed that even if erectile dysfunction medication is required, it's likely to be more effective if you implement these healthy lifestyle changes.
For clinical practice, erectile dysfunction is the most important form of male sexual disorders. In the majority of patients causation and course of their erectile disorder is determined by a close interplay of somatic and psychosocial factors. This psychosomatic interaction has to be taken into account during diagnostic assessment and therapy. The old dichotomous concepts (psychogenic versus organic) of erectile dysfunction have to be replaced by multidimensional models that include dispositonal as well as chronifying factors. The main causes of psychogenic erectile disorders can be divided into three groups, each belonging to a different phase of time: 1. immediate factors (performance anxiety), 2. antecedent life events from recent history, 3. developmental vulnerabilities from childhood and adolescence. The most important instrument for the psychological evaluation of sexually dysfunctional patients is a comprehensive sexual history in which partner related aspects should be particularly focused. In treating psychogenic erectile dysfunctions sex therapy is a reliable and efficient treatment option with a reasonably good long-term prognosis. In future, sex therapy should be combined with somatic treatment options to reach a truly integrative approach to this complex disorder.
Tests such as the bulbocavernosus reflex test are used to determine if there is sufficient nerve sensation in the penis. The physician squeezes the glans (head) of the penis, which immediately causes the anus to contract if nerve function is normal. A physician measures the latency between squeeze and contraction by observing the anal sphincter or by feeling it with a gloved finger inserted past the anus.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not recommend alternative therapies to treat sexual dysfunction.[28] Many products are advertised as "herbal viagra" or "natural" sexual enhancement products, but no clinical trials or scientific studies support the effectiveness of these products for the treatment of ED, and synthetic chemical compounds similar to sildenafil have been found as adulterants in many of these products.[29][30][31][32][33] The FDA has warned consumers that any sexual enhancement product that claims to work as well as prescription products is likely to contain such a contaminant.[34]

Yes. Stress definitely can cause erectile dysfunction (ED). It may become an issue with a new relationship or when challenges at work become overwhelming. These issues can interfere with “erotic focus” or “awareness of sensory experience.” Basically, it can take someone out of “the moment” making maintaining an erection a challenge. In fact, while stress is a common cause of erectile dysfunction in those under the age of 40, it can be responsible for ED at any age. Also, while younger men are more likely to have a psychological reason for their ED, physical reasons cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, in younger men the causes are often related to stress, depression, extreme anxiety, or some other disruption in their emotional state. Young men may have physical reasons that cause ED, including issues like abnormal hormone production, trauma that affects the blood vessels of the penis, Peyronie’s disease that causes a bend in the penis, neurological conditions that affect the transmission of signals that result in erections, drug or alcohol use, or the use of medications as simple as antihistamines. Also, in men under the age of 40, ED can be an early sign that vascular disease is beginning to affect them. An erection is an indicator of a man’s general health. It is always worth exploring the possible physical issues that could be at work. Nevertheless, in the younger population stress and depression are not uncommon causes of ED.
The pills currently available by prescription all work the same way—by boosting the effects of NO in the penis. They typically have mild side effects. Some work faster but others last longer. There is no “best” drug, as some will work better for some men than others, but they all are about equally effective at increasing the hardness of an erection. Pills don’t work for everyone. The main risk is using them with nitroglycerine which can be fatal and must absolutely be avoided.
Erectile dysfunction can be a warning sign of serious underlying disease. Research has found that erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor of heart attack, stroke, and even death from cardiovascular disease. All men with erectile dysfunction should be evaluated for cardiovascular disease. Notably, this does not mean every man with erectile dysfunction will develop heart disease, or that every man with heart disease has erectile dysfunction; however, erectile dysfunction patients should be aware of the link.

Currently, there are no therapies that cure erectile dysfunction. However, a number of effective therapies are available that allow an individual to have an erection when desired. Depending on the cause of the erectile dysfunction, certain therapies may be more effective than others. Although there is limited data on lifestyle modification, intuitively, decreasing risk factors for erectile dysfunction may help prevent progression of disease.
We always tell men; “sometimes your penis is smarter than you are.” If you are trying to have sex with someone who is critical towards you, shuts you out, gives you ultimatums or gets angry any time you aren’t erect, it is no surprise you are having trouble getting an erection. Medical experts cite poor communication as one cause of ED. It’s time to read some books or get some professional help as a couple to better communicate your feelings. As much as you might like to be immune to cruelty or criticism and just get it up anyway, it’s time to pay attention to your penis and make sure you are being treated with kindness and empathy!

A chemical imbalance in brain leads to depression which not only affects the sexual performance but can also lower the libido. Compared to women, depression in men is more difficult to diagnose. In fact, many men don’t even know that they are suffering from depression and even if they find out they are often not willing to seek appropriate treatment.
Although scientists don't understand exactly how this condition can lead to ED, one theory is that high arterial pressure in the small vessels of the penis may cause microscopic tears to the vessel walls. In the process of repairing these tears, the arteries become thicker and less able to supply needed blood to the spongy, erectile tissues of the penis.

First, medical conditions need to be ruled out. Let’s assume that you have never been diagnosed with a medical condition that is physically linked to erectile dysfunction, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity or heart disease. In this case you’re probably looking at a case of psychological impotence, given that there are no physical explanations for your difficulties.
Depression: Depression is recognized as having effects far beyond mood. It can compromise someone’s immune system or even increase the likelihood of having a heart attack. Erectile dysfunction can affect someone with depression even when he is in a stable and loving relationship. Unfortunately, the drugs used to treat depression can cause erectile dysfunction, as well. The good news is that erectile dysfunction medications work whether the difficulty is from the depression itself or from the medications.
This lady's article on ED is exhibit A as to the ongoing problem with the field of psychology. Rememeber when phychologitsts use to claim the schizophrenia was caused by cold mothering or that homosexuality is an illness. Now this WOMAN psychologist - is trying to profit off the misery of men who for PHYSIOLOGICAL reasons cannot maintain an erection!
These commonly prescribed medications affect sexual function in different ways depending on the specific type of drug and how it works. “Central regulation of erections relies on dopamine and serotonin, so any impact on these processes can worsen erectile function,” says Trost. He notes that Wellbutrin (buproprion) and Remeron (mirtazipine) are the antidepressants that likely have the least impact on erectile function.
Thanks for you comment. Viagra is not going to fix a relational problem that is contributing to sexual dysfunction. About 90% of erectile problems are cause by psychology, not biology. Viagra may work to get an erection but it won't get to the origin of the problem which is often what the lack of erection is about. Many men fear getting hooked on drugs in order to have sex, sometimes they don't work and also it make spontaneous sex difficult if not impossible. Viagra is not a good long term solution to erectile problems. My counseling fixes those relational issues that contribute to sexual problems and yes, I would be happy to have a guarantee that sex will change after working with a sex therapist.
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Not only can guilt affect your ability to perform sexually, but so can low self-esteem. The correlation between erectile dysfunction and low self-esteem seems obvious from one direction – an inability to perform in the bedroom can cause you to feel bad about yourself. But how does low self-esteem cause ED? Self-esteem is defined as, “confidence in one’s own worth or abilities.”


Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Men with a rare heart condition known as long QT syndrome should not take vardenafil since this may lead to abnormal heart rhythms. The QT interval is the time it takes for the heart's muscle to recover after it has contracted. An electrocardiogram (EKG) measures the QT interval. Some people have longer than normal QT intervals, and they may develop potentially life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms, especially when given certain medications. Men with a family history of long QT syndrome should not take vardenafil, as it is possible to inherit long QT syndrome. Furthermore, vardenafil is not recommended for men who are taking medications that can affect the QT interval such as quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan-SR, Procanbid), amiodarone (Cordarone), and sotalol (Betapace).

Erectile dysfunction (previously called impotence) is the inability to get or maintain an erection that is sufficient to ensure satisfactory sex for both partners. This problem can cause significant distress for couples. Fortunately more and more men of all ages are seeking help, and treatment for ED has advanced rapidly. The enormous demand for “anti-impotence” drugs suggests that erection problems may be more common than was previously thought. Find out more about the causes and treatment of erectile dysfunction here.
Whether patients report their sexual problems depends on several factors, including whether the patient is comfortable disclosing these problems, and whether the clinician is willing to ask about sexual issues and does so in a sensitive way.7,8 Patients on long-term medications may not be aware that their sexual problems have developed as a result of their treatment. Conversely some may blame their drugs for sexual problems which are due to relationship difficulties or other stressors. Some doctors consider that asking patients if they had noticed any sexual adverse effects from their drugs may 'suggest' them to the patient, and possibly result in non-adherence. Patients attributing their sexual problems to their drugs are less likely to continue the treatment even when necessary for their health.9 The consultation should include discussion of the patient's sexual issues so these can be considered in treatment decisions.
So many couples have sex the way they think it is supposed to be or they think their partner wants it to be without ever exploring and sharing their fantasies with each other. In order for sex to be hot enough for you to get hard, some of what is in your fantasy life needs to show up in your bedroom. Instead of living one life where you put exactly what you want into your porn searches and then have sex that doesn’t do it for you with your partner, it’s time to start bringing those naughty ideas to your partner so you can play them out or fantasize about them together!

Diabetes mellitus: Erectile dysfunction tends to develop 10 to 15 years earlier in diabetic men than among nondiabetic men. The increased risk of erectile dysfunction among men with diabetes mellitus may be due to the earlier onset and greater severity of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) that narrows the arteries and thereby reduces the delivery of blood to the penis. Atherosclerosis can affect the arteries in the penis, as well as the arteries in the pelvis that supply the penile arteries. Diabetes mellitus also causes erectile dysfunction by damaging nerves that go to the penis, much like the effect of diabetes on nerves in other areas of the body (diabetic neuropathy). Diabetes can also affect the muscles in the penis, leading to troubles with erections. Smoking cigarettes, obesity, poor control of blood glucose levels, and having diabetes mellitus for a long time further increase the risk of erectile dysfunction in people with diabetes.
The Latin term impotentia coeundi describes simple inability to insert the penis into the vagina; it is now mostly replaced by more precise terms, such as erectile dysfunction (ED). The study of ED within medicine is covered by andrology, a sub-field within urology. Research indicates that ED is common, and it is suggested that approximately 40% of males experience symptoms compatible with ED, at least occasionally.[48] The condition is also on occasion called phallic impotence.[49] Its antonym, or opposite condition, is priapism.[50][51]
Vacuum devices for erectile dysfunction, also called pumps, offer an alternative to medication. To use a pump, the penis is placed inside a cylinder. Then the pump draws air out of the cylinder to create a partial vacuum around the penis causing it to fill with blood, leading to an erection. An elastic band worn around the base of the penis is used to maintain the erection during intercourse. Individuals should discuss the use of this device, and especially the elastic band use to avoid potential penile damage.
The association between psychiatric conditions and sexual dysfunctions, including ED, is well known. Data from population-based studies demonstrate a cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and ED (65-68) and, among men seeking medical care for ED, depression is significantly associated with a greater severity of the impairment in erectile function (69,70). A meta-analysis of the available prospective studies has shown the role of depression as a significant risk factor for development of ED (71). However, the relationship seems to be bidirectional, as also ED has been associated with the occurrence of depression (72). In addition, treatment with PDE5i is related with an improvement in depressive symptoms (72). Most of this evidence comes from studies not specifically designed for the assessment of this relationship in younger men. However, few studies available in younger populations seem to confirm these results. In an internet-based survey, involving more than 800 North American medical students with a mean age of 25.7 years, ED was reported by 13% of them and it showed a significant association with depressive symptoms, whose frequency got higher as a function of ED severity (73). In a population of more than 2,500 very young Swiss men, aged 18–25 years, participating to a survey on sexual function while attending the medical screening for the evaluation of military capability, ED had a prevalence of 30%. Among the possible correlated conditions, mental health showed an independent association, besides the use of medications without medical prescription, a shorter sexual lifespan and impaired physical health (74). The results from this Swiss study were then prospectively extended on a sample of 3,700 men evaluated at baseline and 15.5 months later (75). Among a number of different possible predictors, including life-style, drug abuse, perceived physical fitness and BMI, only perceived impairment in mental health and depression, either newly occurred or continuously present, were associated with both persistence and development of ED (75). In a retrospective population-based study from Finland, involving almost 3,500 men aged 18–48 years, the role of depression as a significant predictor for ED was confirmed, but this study also showed that anxiety plays a significant role and that ED is significantly less frequent in men with a longer lasting sexual life, thus underlining the positive role of sexual experience and self-confidence (76). Anxiety is often involved in the pathogenesis of ED at the beginning of sexual life. In fact, anxiety can lead to an excessive focus on quality of erection, thus providing a cognitive distraction that negatively affects the arousal and consequently the erection itself (77-79). On the other hand, anxiety can result from one or more sexual failures, with loss of sexual confidence, increasing fears and avoidance for sexual experiences that, in the end, lead to an increased probability of new failures, thus creating a vicious circle (77). Cognitive distraction could be also provided by excessive worry for physical, and in particular genital, self-image. In fact, it has been proposed that when most mental energy is focused on monitoring body, psychological resources are distracted from sex, resulting in an impaired functioning (80,81). In line with this cognitive explanation, a recent study conducted on 367 military personnel younger than 40 years showed that a deteriorated genital self-image is associated with sexual anxiety which, in turn, is associated with a higher probability of sexual dysfunction (82).
Several classes of prescription drugs contribute to sexual dysfunction in men and women (Table 1).1-3 Patients who develop drug-induced sexual dysfunction are more likely to be non-adherent. This has been found with antihypertensives4 and antipsychotics5. The literature has emphasised male sexual problems with less data available on female or couple problems.

Yes. Stress definitely can cause erectile dysfunction (ED). It may become an issue with a new relationship or when challenges at work become overwhelming. These issues can interfere with “erotic focus” or “awareness of sensory experience.” Basically, it can take someone out of “the moment” making maintaining an erection a challenge. In fact, while stress is a common cause of erectile dysfunction in those under the age of 40, it can be responsible for ED at any age. Also, while younger men are more likely to have a psychological reason for their ED, physical reasons cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, in younger men the causes are often related to stress, depression, extreme anxiety, or some other disruption in their emotional state. Young men may have physical reasons that cause ED, including issues like abnormal hormone production, trauma that affects the blood vessels of the penis, Peyronie’s disease that causes a bend in the penis, neurological conditions that affect the transmission of signals that result in erections, drug or alcohol use, or the use of medications as simple as antihistamines. Also, in men under the age of 40, ED can be an early sign that vascular disease is beginning to affect them. An erection is an indicator of a man’s general health. It is always worth exploring the possible physical issues that could be at work. Nevertheless, in the younger population stress and depression are not uncommon causes of ED.
"There are times when couples recognize that the problem is more about their relationship or individual issues that get in the way of relaxing and enjoying physical intimacy," Connolly adds. In this instance, an individual or couple should look for a qualified therapist, preferably a member of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, who will have experience in dealing with issues regarding relationships and erectile dysfunction.
These prescription drugs increase the levels of nitric oxide in your blood. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator, meaning it makes your blood vessels widen to help increase the blood flow. These drugs are especially effective at widening the blood vessels in your penis. More blood in your penis makes it much easier for you to get and maintain an erection when you are sexually aroused.
If on one hand, depression and anxiety can lead to ED, drugs commonly used for their treatment can cause ED, as well. Sexual dysfunctions are common side effects of several psychotropic drugs that can disrupt sexual health by several different mechanisms (83). In particular, ED has been reported in subjects using serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI), lithium and benzodiazepines (83). SSRI are associated with a broad spectrum of sexual dysfunctions, but the most commonly reported complaints are delayed ejaculation or anorgasmia and reduced sexual desire (84). Several mechanisms could be advocated including the agonist effect on serotonin receptors type 2 and the increase in PRL levels. ED is a frequent complaint as well (84,85). The relationship between the use of SSRI and ED can be secondary to loss of sexual desire but SSRI, in particular paroxetine, are also able to inhibit cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide synthase (86). In addition, it has been observed that SSRIs might down-regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis in depressed men (87).
Failure to achieve an erection is not uncommon for most men and may be considered normal even if it happens as often as 20 percent of the time. There is a wide range of normal when it comes to sexual functioning and sexual relationships. "Generally if a couple feels comfortable with their sex life and they enjoy intimacy together, erectile dysfunction may not be much of an issue. But if erectile dysfunction is causing stress in a relationship, then help is available," says Feloney.
Excess alcohol causes erectile dysfunction in a variety of ways. Have one too many, and it decreases the production of NO in your penis, decreasing blood flow. It can even prevent the prescription pills from working. A little alcohol may get you aroused, but a lot actually blunts desire in your brain and can make it hard to reach climax as well. Over time excess alcohol damages the nerves to the penis that trigger an erection, and eventually, when the liver gets damaged, testosterone levels plummet. If you drink, practice moderation.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common and highly effective treatment for psychological issues in general, but also for ED. Facilitated by a therapist, this type of treatment helps you to identify and change unhealthy patterns of thought and action which may be contributing to your erectile issues. This kind of treatment is based on the idea that the situation itself (your inability to achieve or maintain an erection) is not the core problem, but rather your reaction to it. If you can learn to better understand yourself and your thought patterns, you can change them in a positive way to resolve your issues.
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Impotence, also known as erectile dysfunction or ED, is a condition in which a man is unable to get or hold an erection long enough to have a satisfactory sex life. Impotence is a common problem, affecting up to half of Australian men between the ages of 40 and 70 years. The risk of developing erectile dysfunction increases as you get older.In the past, doctors considered impotence to be a mainly psychological problem, caused by performance anxiety or stress. Now, doctors know that many cases of impotence have a physical cause, which usually can be treated. Often, a combination of physical and psychological factors contributes to erectile dysfunction.Physical causes of impotencePhysical causes of impotence can include:problems with blood to flow into and out of the penis;damage to the nerves that send signals from the body’s central nervous system to the penis; and, more rarely,a deficiency in testosterone or other hormones.Some medicines can contribute to impotence, as can some types of surgery and radiotherapy treatments.Blocked blood vessels to the penisA very common cause of impotence is when blood flow into the penis is reduced. This can be due to atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. In atherosclerosis, the arteries are clogged and narrowed, resulting in reduced blood flow.Risk factors for atherosclerosis include:high cholesterol;high blood pressure;obesity;sleep apnoea;diabetes; andsmoking.If your erection problems are caused by atherosclerosis, there is a chance that the arteries in other parts of your body (e.g. the coronary arteries that supply your heart) are also affected by atherosclerosis. In fact, erection problems may be the first sign that you are at risk of coronary heart disease.Because the arteries to the penis are narrower than those to the heart, you may develop symptoms of erectile dysfunction before you experience any symptoms of heart disease, such as angina. So seeing your doctor about erection problems may be important for your overall physical health.Impotence can also be caused by a blood clot that prevents enough blood from flowing into the penis to cause an erection.Venous leakageIn some men, blood can flow in to the penis easily, but the problem is that it leaks out again, so an erection cannot be sustained. This is called venous leakage. Doctors aren’t certain of the cause of venous leakage, but they can perform surgery to help repair it.Medicines that can cause impotenceMany medicines can cause erection problems as a side effect, including:diuretics (sometimes known as ‘water tablets’ - often used for high blood pressure);high blood pressure medications;cholesterol-lowering medicines (including statins);some types of antipsychotics;antidepressants;cancer treatments;some medicines used to treat heartburn and stomach ulcers;antihistamines;some pain medicines; andcertain epilepsy medications.If you experience impotence after starting a new medication, tell your doctor, who may be able to prescribe a different medicine for you. Don’t stop taking a medicine without first consulting your doctor. You should also tell your doctor about any over-the-counter medicines or complementary remedies you may be taking.The following table contains a list of specific medicines that may cause or contribute to erectile dysfunction. This list may not cover all types of medicines that can cause erectile dysfunction, so always ask your doctor if you are in doubt. Also, for some of these medicines ED is a very rare side effect. Most men taking these medicines do not experience erectile dysfunction.Medicines that may cause erectile dysfunctionType of medicineExamplesACE inhibitorscaptopril (Capoten), enalapril (Renitec), perindopril (Perindo), ramipril (Tritace), and othersAntidepressantsamitriptyline (Endep), clomipramine (Anafranil), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Aropax), sertraline (Zoloft), venlafaxine (Altven, Efexor), and othersAnti-epilepticsclonazepam (Rivotril), pregabalin (Lyrica)Antifungalsitraconazole (Sporanox)Anti-ulcer drugscimetidine (Magicul), nizatidine (Tazac), ranitidine (Zantac), and othersBeta-blockerspropranolol (Inderal), metoprolol (Betaloc, Lopresor), and othersOther blood pressure-lowering medicinesclonidine (Catapres), lercanidipine/enalapril (Zan-Extra), losartan (Cozaar), perindopril/amlodipine (Coveram), olmesartan/amlodipine (Sevikar), telmisartan/amlodipine (Twynsta), valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Co-Diovan)Calcium-channel blockersdiltiazem (Cardizem), felodipine (Plendil), nifedipine (Adalat)Cholesterol-lowering drugsatorvastatin (Lipitor), ezetimibe/simvastatin (Vytorin), fluvastatin (Lescol, Vastin), gemfibrozil (Ausgem), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (APO-simvastatin, Lipex, Zocor), and othersDiuretics ('water tablets')bumetanide (Burinex), chlorthalidone (Hygroton), spironolactone (Aldactone), and othersSchizophrenia drugsamisulpride (Solian, Sulprix), haloperidol (Haldol, Serenace), olanzapine (Lanzek, Ozin, Zypine, Zyprexa), paliperidone (Invega), risperidone (Rispa, Risperdal), ziprasidone (Zeldox)Combination cholesterol-lowering and anti-hypertensiveamlodipine/atorvastatin (Caduet, Cadatin)Pain medicinesfentanyl (Denpax, Durogesic), hydromorphone (Jurnista), morphine (Momex SR, MS Contin), oxycodone (OxyContin, OxyNorm, Targin), tramadolMiscellaneousoestrogens, antiandrogens, anticancer drugs and some chemotherapy treatments, baclofen (Clofen, Lioresal); cyproterone (Androcur, Cyprohexal, Cyprostat), degarelix (Firmagon), etoricoxib (Arcoxia), finasteride (Proscar and Propecia), flutamide (Flutamin), rotigotine (Neupro), triptorelin (Diphereline)*The names in brackets are just some examples of the trade names each specific medicine is marketed under in Australia. The medicine may also be known by other trade names.Diabetes and erectile dysfunctionMen who have diabetes have a higher risk of developing impotence than other men. Diabetes contributes to impotence because it can damage blood vessels and cause a type of nerve damage known as peripheral neuropathy.Hormones and impotenceLow levels of the male hormone, testosterone, are more commonly linked to a lowered sex drive, rather than impotence itself. Only a small percentage of cases of impotence are caused by hormone deficiency.Low testosterone levels may be the result of a condition called hypogonadism, in which the testicles don’t produce enough testosterone. More rarely, low testosterone can be caused by the pituitary (a small gland at the base of the brain) not secreting sufficient hormones to stimulate the testes to produce testosterone. The pituitary is also sometimes affected by small benign (non-cancerous) tumours that secrete prolactin, another hormone that can cause impotence.Mildly decreased levels of testosterone are often not due to specific testicular or pituitary problems, but rather stress or depression. In this situation, testosterone replacement is rarely of any benefit.Other hormone problems, including thyroid disease, can also cause impotence.Prostate cancer and erectile dysfunctionThe advanced stages of prostate cancer can affect the nerves and arteries that are vital for an erection.Radiation treatment for prostate cancer can harm the erectile tissues of the penis, and prostate cancer surgery can cause nerve or artery damage to the penis.Treatment for advanced prostate cancer often includes medicines that counteract testosterone, and commonly cause erectile dysfunction as well as loss of sexual interest.Peyronie’s diseasePeyronie’s disease is an uncommon condition that affects a man’s sex life because his penis curves abnormally and causes pain when he has an erection. He might also be unable to have a hard erection. The curvature of the penis is caused by a scar, called a plaque, that forms in the penis.Other physical causes of impotenceSeveral other factors and conditions can contribute to erectile dysfunction, including the following.Depression. Many men find that when they’re suffering from depression, they lose interest in sex and can’t get or keep an erection. Asking your doctor for treatments for depression may help alleviate your erection problems as well.Smoking contributes to vascular disease (disease of the blood vessels), so it can contribute to erectile dysfunction by affecting blood flow to the penis. Giving up smoking often has a beneficial effect on erectile function.Excessive alcohol use. Alcoholism can cause permanent nerve damage, resulting in impotence. This nerve damage is called peripheral neuropathy. Long-term alcohol use can impair the liver’s ability to function, resulting in a hormone imbalance in which a man has too much of the female sex hormone, oestrogen. On a day-to-day level, alcohol dulls the central nervous system, adversely affecting sexual response.Illicit drug use. Illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, barbiturates, and amphetamines act on the central nervous system, impairing the body’s ability to respond sexually.Certain exercises. Nerve and artery damage can be caused by prolonged cycling, rodeo riding, or use of a rowing machine, resulting in the inability to get an erection. Often, minimising the use of hard bicycle seats and exercise machine seats, as well as correct positioning of the seat, will help restore sexual function.Surgery to organs near the nerve pathways of the penis, such as the bladder, rectum and prostate, can cause nerve or artery damage to the penis, resulting in the inability to have an erection.Injuries. Impotence can be caused by spinal cord injury; injury to your sex organs; or a pelvic fracture, which can cause damage to the nerves of the penis, or damage the blood vessels, resulting in reduced blood flow to the penis.Conditions affecting the nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease, can damage the nerves involved in erections.Psychological causes of impotenceMost cases of impotence have physical causes, but, in some men, psychological factors are the main contributors to impotence.Impotence that’s triggered by psychological factors is more common in men who are sexually inexperienced. Psychological erectile dysfunction may only occur when you’re with just one particular person. You’re also more likely to have morning erections, and be able to have an erection when you masturbate, than men whose impotence has a physical cause.Here are some psychological factors that can have an impact on your erections.Stress and anxietyWhen you’re stressed and focusing on other issues apart from sex, you might find that you don’t want to have sex as often and there might be a drop in your ability to perform when you do try. You might find that tackling the source of your stress can have benefits in the bedroom as well.Fear of failureAnxiety about your sexual prowess (commonly called performance anxiety) can, in itself, contribute to failure. By putting pressure on yourself, you become too anxious to get an adequate erection.Most men experience isolated episodes of erectile failure. Even when the transient physical cause has passed, anxiety that it may recur is sufficient to prevent erection. Anxiety, whether about something specifically sexual or part of a wider anxiety syndrome, is never helpful to good sexual function.Problems with your relationship and impotenceImpotence may be a manifestation of a poor relationship, or a problematic time in a relationship. Sexual boredom, tension or anger among partners, and lack of intimacy and communication are all possible triggers of erectile dysfunction. In these cases, seeing a counsellor may help.It’s worth remembering that impotence is a complex medical condition, which may have more than one cause. For example, if impotence is the result of a side effect of medicine or an underlying disease, the anxiety caused by lack of performance may perpetuate the erectile dysfunction even after the physical cause has been dealt with.Almost any chronic (ongoing) physical or mental health disorder, including those with no direct effect on penile nerves or blood supply, can have a powerful effect on sexuality, sexual self-image and erectile function.If you’re worried about your sexual response or the quality of your erections, don’t be afraid to talk to your doctor, who has access to treatments that can help. Last Reviewed: 16 December 2016

In rare cases, the drug Viagra ® can cause blue-green shading to vision that lasts for a short time. In rare cases, the drug Cialis® can cause or increase back pain or aching muscles in the back. In most cases, the side effects are linked to PDE5 inhibitor effects on other tissues in the body, meaning they are working to increase blood flow to your penis and at the same time impacting other vascular tissues in your body. These are not ‘allergic reactions'.
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